Friday, May 27, 2016

How does a virtual corporation use the Internet, Intranets and Extranets to form a virtual work group? Explain

# A virtual corporation is a specific example of networked organization cooperative agreement between two or more business entities to combine their resources in order to a achieve a shared goal.It is called a virtual corporation.

Business use of the internet is expanding from an electronic information exchange to a broad platform for strategic business applications.

  • collaboration among business applications.
  • providing customer and vendor support.
  • Buying and selling products and services.
  • Enterprise communications and collaboration
  • Strategic business alliances.

An intranet is a network inside an organization that uses internet technologies to provide for enterprise information sharing communications collaboration and the support the business processes.

Use of Intranets :

  • Using an intranet browser and pc or NC workstation to send and receive E-mail, Voice-mail, Paging and faxes to communicate with others.
  • Using intranet group ware features to improve team and project collaboration with service such as discussions groups, chat rooms, an audio and video conferencing 
  • Internet software browsers, servers and search engines can help you easily navigate and locate the business.

Extranet :
                       Extranet are network links that use internet technologies to interconnect the intranet of business with the intranets of its customers.Suppliers, or other business partners.

  • Establish direct private network links between themselves or create private secure internet links between them called virtual private networks.
  • Use the unsecured internet as the extranet link between its intranet and consumers and others, but rely on encryption of sensitive data and its own firewall systems to private adequate security.

Describe the factors you should consider if you are planning to conduct business online

#  Conduct Business Online :
                                                 A sound E-business strategy has helped many U.S companies to reduce their costs and increase their productivity and sales. The internet allows you to do international business independent of time differences and office hours. The resources in their section help you better understand how E-Commerce can help your export business.

1. E-Commerce is valuable for all business :
                                                                                         Investor word defines E-Commerce as "the buying and selling of products over the internet" any transaction that is completed solely through electronic measures can be considered in E-Commerce.

2. Time is money :
                                       From a consumer standpoint, it is more efficient to shop online because it saves time.

3. The niche Market :
                                             E-Commerce i the perfect solution for a company whose target audience is a niche market.if you sell a special item you need to be online cause E-Commerce websites have proven successfully to retailer whose core audience is a highly segmented part of the overall population.

4. Low Overhead :
                                        E-Commerce website has low overhead costs. It is relatively cheap to design a website with an online store.

What is M-Commerce?

M-Commerce :
                                     M-Commerce is the transmission of user data without wires. M-Commerce is also the management of the processes that handle the products or service needs of consumer via a mobile phone and the sale of products and services anytime. M-Commerce also refers to business transactions and payment conducted in a non-pc based environment M-commerce is not about selling products or services on a mobile device.

What is Business Model? Briefly explain different business models in E-Commerce

# Business Model : A business model is the plan implemented by a company to generate revenue and make a profit from operations.The model includes the components and functions of the business as well as the revenues it generates and the expenses it incurs.Business models are used to describe and classify business especially in an entrepreneurial setting but they are also used by managers inside companies to explore possibilities for future development.Business models are also referred to in some instances within the context of accounting for purposes of public reporting.

Briefly explain different business models in E-Commerce .

# E-Commerce or Electronic Commerce business models can generally categorized in following categories :

1. Business - to - Business(B2B)

2. Business - to - Consumers(B2C)

3. Consumers - to - Consumers(C2C)

4. Consumers - to - Business(C2B)

5. Business - to - Government(B2G)

6. Government - to - Business(G2B)

7. Government - to - Citizen(B2B)

# Business - to Business(B2B) :
                                                        Website following B2B business model sells its product to an intermediate buyer who then sells the product to the final customer. As an example, a wholesaler places an order from a company's website and after receiving the consignment sells the end product to final customer who comes to buy the product at wholesaler's retail outlet.

# Business - to - Consumer(B2C) :
                                                            Website following B2C business model sells its product directly to a customer. A customer can view products shown on the website of business organization.The customer can choose a product and order the same website will send notification to the business organization will dispatch the product/goods to the customer.

#  Consumer - to - Consumer(C2C) :
                                                             Website following  C2C business model helps consumer to sell their assets like residential property, cars, motorcycles etc or rent a room by publishing their information on the website. Website may or may not charge the consumer for its services. Another consumer may opt to buy the product of the first customer by viewing the post/advertisement on the website.

# Consumer - to - Business(C2B) :
                                                         In this model, a consumer approaches website showing multiple business organization for a particular service. Consumer places an estimate of amount he/she wants to speed for a particular service.

# Business - to -Government(B2G) :
                                                              Business - to -government  model is a variant of B2B model. Such websites are used by government to trade and exchange information with various business organization.Such websites are accredited by the government and provide a medium to business to submit applications forms to the government.

# Government - to - Business(G2B) :
                                                               Government uses B2G model website to approach business organizations. Such website to approach business organizations. Such website support auctions, tenders and application submission functionalities.

# Government - to -Citizen(G2C) :
                                                             Government uses G2C model website to approach citizen in general. Such website support auctions of vehicles, machinery or any other material.

Monday, May 23, 2016

What is SCM and CRM? Briefly Explain them

              Supply Chain Management (SCM) is the management of the flow of goods and services. It includes the movement and storage of raw materials, work-in-process inventory and finished goods from point of consumption.

A supply chain, as opposed to supply chain management, is a set of organizations directly linked by one or more upstream and downstream flows of products, services, finances or information from a source to a customer.

Supply chain management flows can be divided in three main flows.

(1) The Product Flow

(2) The Information Flow

(3) The Finances Flow

                                               The product flow includes the movement of goods from a supplier to a customer as well as any customer returns or service needs.The information flow involves transmitting orders and  updating the status of delivery.The financial flow consists of credit terms, payment schedules and consignment and title ownership arrangements.

There are two main types of SCM software : 

Planning applications and execution applications.Some SCM applications are based on open data models.

CRM : 
              Customer Relationship Management (CRM) is an approach to managing a company's interaction with current and future customers.CRM is a term that refers to practices, strategies and technologies that companies use to manage and analyze customer interactions and data throughout
 the customer lifecycle, with the goal of improving business relationships with customers, assisting customer retention and driving sales growth

Common feature of CRM software includes :

(1) Marketing Automation : 
                                              CRM tools with marketing automation capabilities can automate repetitive tasks to enhance marketing efforts to customers at different points in the lifecycle.

(2) Sales force automation :
                                                 Also known as sales force management, sales force automation means to prevent duplicate efforts between a salesperson and a customer.

(3) Contact center automation :
                                                    Designed to reduce tedius aspects of a contact centre agents job contact center automation might include pre-recorded audio that assists in customer problem solving.

(4) Geolocation Technology or Location Based Services :
                                                                                                 Some CRM systems include technology that can create geographic marketing campaigns based on customer physical locations, sometime integrating with GPS apps.

Saturday, May 21, 2016

What is IDEA?

              International Data Encryption Algorithm is an encryption algorithm developed at ETH in Zurich, Switzerland. It uses a block Cipher with a 128-bit key and is generally Considered to be very secure.It is considered among best publicly known algorithms. In the several years that it has been in use no practical attacks on it have been published despite of a number of attempts to find some. IDEA is patented in the United states and in most of the European Countries.IDEA uses 52 subkeys, each 16 bits long. THe plaintext block in IDEA is divided into four quaters.

What is 3DES?

3DES :
                Triple data encryption standard(DES) is a type of computerized cryptography where block cipher algorithms are applied there times to each data block.The key size is increased in Triple DES to ensure additional security through encryption capabilities.Each block contains 64 bits of data, There keys are referred to as bundle keys with 56 bits per key.There are three keying options in data encryption standards : 

1. All keys being independent.

2. Key 1 and key 2 being independent keys.

3. All three keys being identical.

key option #3 is known as triple DES. The triple DES key length contains 168 bits but the key security falls to 112 bits. 

What is DES?

             The data encryption standard (DES) is a common standard for data encryption and a form of secret key cryptography which uses only one key for encryption and decryption public key cryptography(PKC) uses two keys i.e. one for encryption and one for decryption.DES uses a 56-bit key and uses the block cipher method which breaks text into 64-bit blocks and then encrypts then.

Write down the RSA Algorithm

RSA Algorithm :
                                         The Rivest-Shamir-Adleman(RSA) algorithm is one of the most popular and secure public-key encryption methods. The algorithms capitalizes on the fact that there is n no efficient way to factor very large(100-200) digit numbers.

using as encryption key(e,n) the algorithm is as follows

1.Represent the message as an integer between 0 and (n-1). Large messages can be broken up into a number of blocks.Each block would then be represented by an integer in the same range.

2. Encrypt the message by raising it to the eth power module n. The result is a ciphertext message C.

3. To decrypt ciphertext message C, raise it to another power d module n.

The encryption key (e,n) is made public.The decryption key(d,n) is kept private by the user.The keys for the RSA algorithm are generated the following way :

(i) Choose two different large random prime numbers p and q.

(ii) Set n equals to p*q[(n=pq)]
where n is the modules for the public and private key

(iii) Choose any large integer, d, such that GCD(d,(p-1)*(q-1)) = 1

(iv) Find e such that e8d = 1(mod((p-1)*(q-1)))

Rivest shamir and adleman provide efficient algorithms for each required operation. 

Friday, May 20, 2016

What is Digital Certificate?

Digital Certificate : A digital certificate is an electronic "Passport" those allows a person computer or organization to exchange information securely over the internet using the public key infrastructure. An attachment to an electronic message used for security purpose.The most common use of a digital certificate is to verify that a user sending message is who he or she claims to be and to provide the receiver with the means to encode a reply.A digital certificate authenticates the web credentials of the sender and lets the recipient of an encrypted message know that the data is form a trusted source. A digital certificate is issued by a certification authority(CA).

Digital certificates are used with self-signatures and message encryption.

Digital certificates are also known as public key certificates or identity certificates. 

Explain the basic concept of how information is encrypted.

The basic concept of how information is encrypted :

Encryption or encoding information to prevent it from being read by unauthorized parties has been the main use of cryptography since its early beginnings julius caesar for instance used an alphabetical code when communicating with his field commenders.

For encryption to work properly, both the sender and receiver have to know what set of rules(called the cipher) was used to transform the original information into its coded form(often called cipher text). Encryption is based on two components an algorithm and a key. A cryptographic algorithm is a mathematical function that combines plain text or other intelligible information> An algorithm is difficult to devise and can be used with multiple keys.

What is Public-Key and Private-Key Encryption?

Public Key Encryption :
                                                          Public key cryptography is based on the concept of a key pair. Each half of the pair(one key) can encrypt information that only the other half (the other key) can decrypt. One part of the key pair, the private key is known only by the designated owner, the other part, the public key is published widely but is still associated with the owner, key pairs have a unique feature-data encrypted with one key can be decrypted only with the other key in the pair.

Private Key Encryption :
                                                            In Other Words, it makes no difference if you use the private key or public key to encrypt a message, the recipient can use the other key to decrypt it.

What is Encryption?

Encryption : Encryption is the conversion of electronic data into another form called ciphertext which cannot be easily understand by anyone except authorized parties. Encryption does not of inself prevent interception but denies the message content to the interceptor. The purpose of encoading a message so that it can be read only by the Sender and the intended reciplent. Encryption systems often use two keys.

What is Blog?

Blog : A blog is a personal online journal that is frequently updated and intended for general public Consumption. Blogs are defined by their format : a series of entries posted to a single page in reverse-chronological order. Blogs generally represent the personality of the author or reflect the purpose of the website that hosts the blog.

Thursday, May 19, 2016

Mention Some Major Application of E-Commerce?

Some Major Application of E-Commerce : 

(1) Supply Chain Management

(2) Procurement And Purchasing

(3) Online Marketing And Advertisement

(4) Online Auction

(5) E-Banking

(6) Online Publishing

(7) Video On Demand

(8) Online Booking(Ticket, Seat Etc)

# Supply Chain Management :
                                                    A supply chain is a network of facilities and distribution options that performs the functions of procurement of materials, transformation of these materials into intermediate and finished products and the distribution of these finished products to customers.

There are four major decision areas in supply chain management : 

(1) Location

(2) Production

(3) Inventory

(4) Transformation(Distribution)

There are both strategic and operational element each of these decision areas.

# Procurement and Purchasing : Procurement refers to the overall process of acquiring a product or service.

(i) Specifying the requirements to fullfill the need 

(ii) Identifying potential suppliers

(iii) Soliciting bids and proposals

(iv) Evaluating bids and proposals 

(v) Awarding contracts or purchase orders 

(vi) Tracking progress and ensuring compliance

(vii) Taking delivery

(viii) Inspecting and inventorying the deliverable 

(ix) Paying the supplier

(x) Identifying a need

# Online marketing And Advertisement :
                                                                         Term referring to the internet and  e-mail based aspects of a marketing campaign, such as banner ads, e-mail marketing, search engine optimization, pay-per click, and other tools. Also referred to as "online advertising".

# Online Auction : 
                                Offer the general public the opportunity to bid electronically on a wide array of assets. The auctions are completely web enabled allowing all register participants to bid on a single item or multiple items within specified timeframes.

# E-Banking : 
                         E-banking includes familiar and relatively mature electronically based  products in developing markets such as telephone banking, credit cards, ATMs, Internet banking and direct deposit. It also includes electronic bill payments and products mostly in the developing stage, including stored-value cards (e.g smart cards/, smart money) and internet based stored value products.

Among the products offered are :

(i) Fund transfer and payment systems.

(ii) Securities placement and understanding and capital market activities

(iii) Securities trading and 

(iv) Retail banking.

# E-Tailing/E-Retailing : 
                                            E-Tailing is the selling retail goods on the Internet. It is the most common form of business-to-consumer(B2C) transaction .

# Online Publishing : 
                                    Electronic publishing includes the publication of newsletter magazine and database and other promotional materials, e-books and the like, making information available for use over computer networks.

(i) Low cost

(ii) Universal Access

(iii) The independence of time and place and 

(iv) Ease of distribution

# Video On Demand :
                                      Video on demand is a system where a viewer can watch their favorite videos and movies. The viewer select the movie using telephone call, SMS and web page.

# Online Booking : 
                                  Booking or reserving any travel tickets, events(sports match, musical performance etc) and hotel rooms using n electronics communications


Wednesday, May 18, 2016

List Major Some Advantages of E-Commerce

Advantages : E-Commerce provides several advantages 

Lower Cost to the E-Merchant :
                                                          The entire financial transaction will eventually become electronic, So, Sooner conversion is going to be lower on cost. It makes every transaction through E-Commerce payment a lot cheaper.

Economy : 
                     By any standard, E-Commerce is economical. Unlike the brick and mortar environment, thee is no rental of physical store space, insurance or intrastructure investment.

Higher Margins :
                                E-Commerce also enables us to move better with higher margin for more business safety. Higher margin also means business with more control as well as flexibility and save time when manual transaction are done electronically.

Better Customer Service : 
                                           E-Commerce means and quicker customer service, Web based customer service makes customers happy. Customer have direct access to their accounts over the web, it saves times.

Quick Comparisons Shopping : 
                                                      E-Commerce helps consumers to comparisons shop.Automated online shopping assistants called hopbots Net stores and find deals on everything from appleas auce to printer ribons.

Productivity Grains : 
                                    E-Commerce means productivity grains.Weaving the web throughout an organization means improved productivity.

Teamwork : 
                      E-Commerce means working together. E-Mail is one example of how people collaborate to exchange information and work on solutions.

Growth in knowledge Markets :
                                                       E-Commerce helps create knowledge markets.Small groups inside big firms can be funded with seed money to develop new ideas.

Information sharing, Convinence and Control :
                                                                                 Electronic market places improve information sharing between merchants and customers, control is another major driving factor.

Customization :
                            Digital products are highly customizable. They are easy to recognise, revise or edit.

Coupons and Deals : 
                                     With every online business wanting you more and more coupons ans deals can't be avoided which are totally great for customers.

Rise in Sales : 
                              By not managing a storefront any business will have more sales online with a higher profit margin.

What is Advantages of E-Commerce?

Advantages of E-Commerce :
  • Faster buying/selling procedure as well as easy to find products.
  • Buying/selling 24/7
  • More reach to customers, there is no theoretical geographic limitations.
  • Low operational costs and better quality of services.
  • No need to physical company set-ups.
  • Easy to start and manage a business
  • Customers can easily select products from different providers without moving around physically. 

What is E-Commerce?

E-Commerce : Electronic Commerce is defined as the buying and selling of products and services over the internet but there are many more aspects. Electronic Commerce is more than just handling purchase transactions and funds transfer over the internet. Electronic commerce is a system that includes not only those transactions that center or buying and selling goods and services to directly generate revenue but also those transactions that support revenue generation. \

Such as generation demand for those goods and services, offering sales support and customer service or facilitating communications between business partner.  

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